Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Isolation of Eugenol Essential Oil from Clove Buds Using Steam Distillation free essay sample
The main volatile oil extracted from clove buds is eugenol. It is used in a variety of ways in traditional medicine and can be isolated successfully using a variety of methods. Isolation was performed using steam distillation. A 3. 0% yield of eugenol oil was observed during the experiment. Introduction Eugenol is an essential oil with a formula of C10H12O2 and a member of the phenylpropanoid family. It is mainly found and isolated from cloves or bay leaves and presents as a colorless or pale yellow oily compound. Essential oils and extracts of various species of plants, herbs, and spices constitute very potent natural biologically active agents (1). Many of these compounds are volatile and are able to undergo steam distillation in order to isolate the oil. Eugenol has a boiling point of approximately 248Ã ° C, but can be isolated from cloves at a lower temperature by performing a co-distillation with water. The eugenol is extracted from the water using an organic solvent, in this experiment dichloromethane (DCM) was used. We will write a custom essay sample on Isolation of Eugenol Essential Oil from Clove Buds Using Steam Distillation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Once the organic layer has been separated from the aqueous layer and dried, the oil can be isolated. The amount of eugenol oil obtained experimentally with this method was 0. 09 grams and the percent recovery of eugenol oil was 3. 0%. Materials and Methods The clove buds were purchased from a local store and did not list a lot number. A steam distillation apparatus was set up as described by Pavia et al (2) using a 100-mL round-bottom flask (Kimax USA, 25277-100, 19/22[ST]) to distill and a 50-mL round-bottom flask (Kimax USA, 25277-50, 19/22[ST]) to collect. A Kimax USA, 19/22 ground glass joint distillation head (No. 44993-A) and vacuum connector (No. 45005-A) was used in conjunction with Pyrex west condenser (Product #2155-19). The distillation flask was placed on a 120V heating mantle (Model HM0050-HS1, Size 4002, 0. 50 A/ 60 W, Lot # 98876/13, Phase 1). Approximately 3. 0 grams of clove buds were obtained, recording the exact weight. The spice was then ground and mixed with 35-40 mL of water in the boiling flask along with a boiling stone (Chemware PTFE, Lot. :D1069103) allowing the spice to soak in the water for about 15 minutes before beginning the distillation. The mixture was distilled until 15 mL of distillate was collected. Extraction was performed using 5 mL methylene chloride (Fisher Scientific, Lot: 114851) in a separatory funnel (Kimax USA, 1 liter, #27 stopcock). A saturated sodium chloride solution (1. 0 mL, UNF Chemistry Department) was used to further separate the aqueous layer from the organic layer. Extraction was performed twice using 5. 0 mL DCM, transferring the organic layer to a clean Erlenmeyer flask (Fisherbrand, 50 mL, FB-500-50). This was sufficient enough to separate the distillate from the aqueous layer. Drying was accomplished over a 15 minute period using about 1 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate (Fisherbrand, S421-1, Lot: 108250). The dried organic layer was decanted to a clean, tared test tube using small amount of DCM to rinse the drying agent. Air was passed over the solution, evaporating the methylene chloride and yielding eugenol oil. Results Percent yield of eugenol oil:After drying the organic layer and evaporating the DCM 0. 90 g of eugenol oil was observed remaining in the test tube. The percent yield of eugenol essential oil from 3. 00g clove buds was 3. 0% Discussion Using steam distillation as a technique to isolate eugenol oil from clove buds in this experiment produced average results when compared to the expected percent yield of approximately 10%. This was most likely due to human error in technique while separating or drying the organic layer. Other methods of isolation such as the use of supercritical CO2 using a Speed SFE instrument to control the pressure of the reaction (3). In future experiments more time would be an integral factor. Further experimentation could be done by analyzing how pure the isolated eugenol oil was and how itÃ¢â¬â¢s functional groups define it as a phenylpropanoid.